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DERIVATIVE CONTRACTS("VAYADA KABALA") AND THEIR BENEFITS


What is a Derivative contract?
A derivative contract is an enforceable agreement whose value is derived from the value of an underlying asset; the underlying asset can be a commodity, precious metal, currency, bond, stock, or, indices of commodities, stocks etc. Four most common examples of derivative instruments are forwards, futures, options and swaps/spreads.
What is a forward contract?
A forward contract is a legally enforceable agreement for delivery of goods or the underlying asset on a specific date in future at a price agreed on the date of contract. Under Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952, all the contracts for delivery of goods, which are settled by payment of money difference or where delivery and payment is made after a period of 11 days, are forward contracts.
What are standardized contracts?
Futures contracts are standardized. In other words, the parties to the contracts do not decide the terms of futures contracts; but they merely accept terms of contracts standardized by the Exchange.
What are customized contracts?
Forward contracts (other than a futures) are customized. In other words, the terms of forward contracts are individually agreed between two counter-parties. These contracts are also commonly known as OTC Contracts
Is delivery mandatory in futures contract trading?
No. The provision for delivery is made in the futures contracts is made so as to ensure that the futures prices in commodities are in conformity with the underlying. Delivery in a futures contracts could be either compulsory or based on the sellers option. In the last two three years deliveries most of the agricultural commodities traded on the futures Exchanges also right to both the buyers and seller to demand/give delivery.
What is the N.S.T.D. contracts ?
Non-Transferable Specific Delivery Contracts is an enforceable bilateral agreement under which the terms of contract are customized and the performance of the contract is by giving specific delivery of goods. The rights or liabilities under this contract cannot be transferred by transferring delivery order, railway receipt, bill of lading, warehouse receipts or any other documents of title to the goods.
Are N.T.S.D. contracts regulated by the Forward Markets Commission?
Though the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952, contains enabling provisions to regulate or prohibit such contract in notified goods, the Government have freed N.S.T.D contracts from regulation or prohibition by issue of notification No.369(E) dated 1.4.2003.
What is the T.S.D. contracts ?
Transferable Specific Delivery contracts is an enforceable customised agreement where unlike non- transferable specific delivery contracts, the right or liabilities under the delivery order, railway receipt, bill of lading, warehouse receipts or any other documents of title to the goods are transferable. The contract is performed by delivery of goods by first seller to the last buyer. The parties, other than the first seller and the last buyer, perform the contract merely by exchanging money differences.
 
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